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Updated: Nov 22, 2021


A person engaged in some particular profession meant to possess the requisite knowledge and skill needed for the aim and must exercise an inexpensive degree of care within the conduct of his duties. As same, it is applicable for medical staffs and negligence in medical that refer to wrongful action or omission of medical personality. This occurs at the time performing duties, viz. duty of care in deciding about treatment, medicine, case to be undertaken or not; all these are covered under a doctor and medical staff. At the time of performing duties by the doctor, any misconduct or breach of duties gives a bear to the right of action for negligence to the patient (Philips India ltd vs Kunju punny AIR 1994 RAJ.68).


Medical negligence has not defined in Indian laws. It is a breach of duties by a medical practitioner for his/her patient. Negligence has defined as the failure to follow the required standard of care. It can include negligent care from any medical background related to one viz, all medical staff. Medical negligence can be the negligence, incompetence, treatment that is unexpected of a patient or general disregard by a professional for the well-being of a patient.


These are referred to as 4'Ds:

1.Duty-To start with, it is critical and takes note that not all specialists owe an obligation of care to everybody. For the obligation of care to emerge, there should be a Doctor and patient relationship.

Case: (DR, N.Ummar v. K.M. Hameed AIR,2014 NOC) 49(ker.): The Court observed: “When a person who possesses sufficient qualifications in the field, is ready to give medical advice and treatment as an expert in that field, he impliedly undertakes that he possesses all-sufficient skill and knowledge for such medical advice or treatment. Such a person has to diagnose the illness and to decide the treatment to be given and the proper medicines to be administered.”

2. Deviation - Desolation or deviation alludes to the disappointment of a clinical expert to meet the obligation of care examined previously. It is also known as “ breach of duty”.

3. Direct causation - The patient should build-up that the clinical experts penetrate of the obligation of care was the immediate reason for the patient's harms. Even though building up this is frequently genuinely clear, it tends to be another region where the contentions on the two sides become warmed.

4. Damages - the patient should show that they have endured hurt, either truly, intellectually or both. This frequently appears through clinical records, remedies or potentially declaration.

Medical Negligence - RES IPSA LOQUITUR: "Thing speaks for itself"

The principle of Res Ipsa loquitor applies in the case of gross medical negligence. It is essentially an evidential principle. The basic meaning of this principle is that the occurrence of some types of accident is sufficient to imply negligence. Applying this principle, a judge can accept that whether negligence had occurred or not. The doctrine assumes the following:

  1. Injury information gives the way to know that without negligence it couldn't have done.

  2. At the time of injury done, there was no involvement of the patient regarding the injury.

  3. The injury happened under the supervision and control of the doctor at the time of operating on the patient.

  4. The accident is a kind that ordinarily does not occur in the absence of someone's negligence.

  5. It is a rule of evidence that infers negligence from the nature of the injury sustained by the plaintiff Case: The principle of this rule is explained: Scott v. London and St. Katherine Docks Co. (1865) 3H and C.596 C.J. said: “ Where the thing is shown to be under the management of the defendant of his servants and therefore the accident is like within the ordinary course of things doesn't happen if those that have the management used proper case, it affords reasonable evidence, within the absence of explanation by the defendants, that the accident arose within the want of care”.


  1. Inability to diagnose or lacking conclusion – If any diagnoses result in misdiagnoses of your condition, that can be serious. And misdiagnosis can result in more health issues that it can be more complicated .like test, medication. Surgery of unwanted disease which even in reality does not exist inpatient and In consequence of that particular medication or surgery patient may die or get to serious implication.

  2. Error or mistake while surgery – Any mistake will unavoidable at the time of surgery as it can result in a problem. For example, a surgeon while operating a patient lefts a foreign object in or he uses the wrong technique which is not familiar in the profession.

  3. Errors while giving Anesthesia – While operating at the patient, usually doctors gives anaesthesia if doses of it are too little or too much, it could be harmful. Other errors may include the medical provider failing to watch your vital signs during surgery or employing a drug the patient was allergic to.

  4. Failure to obtain consent –While operating on a patient professional, must obtain the permission of the patient or any relative. In practice, it is not so common to get consent. The doctor will be held accountable if he performs on a patient while treating symptoms without providing the necessary information or a failure to consent.

  5. Medication errors/ wrong prescription – If you've got to require the incorrect drug, wrong dosage information, or a dangerous combination of medicine, it could end in serious harm to the patient. For this negligence, doctors can be held liable.

  6. Lack of preventive measure or negligent treatment-. Doctors must adopt preventive measures to avoid injury. There could also be a lapse within the availability of those above preventive measures. The negligence can take the form of a failure to follow up with treatment, or a doctor's failure to watch the consequences of the treatment properly while operating a patient while acting on duty.

  7. Childbirth and labour malpractice – The mishandling of problematic birth, complications with induced labour, any misdiagnosis or mistreatment of a newborn medical condition, etc.

  8. Organ transplant malpractice-Not all medical procedures complete cleanly and with an elevated expectation of care, and subsequently, inconveniences can happen. A portion of the inconsistencies that have happened because of an organ relocating or transplant negligence include:

  • Organ relocates without endorsement.

  • Patients getting organs that are tainted or infected.

  • Surgeons leaving careful hardware in the body.

  • Patients organs and benefactor's blood classification not being viable.

  • Other pieces of the body harmed during a medical procedure.

  • Occurrence of wounds because of sedation.

  • Operation on some unacceptable patient or wrong organ or body part.

The entirety of the difficulties referred to above can be amazingly perilous. These missteps, alongside different errors because of clinical misbehaviour, are regularly because of the carelessness of the clinical specialist. A few cases of carelessness are activity while feeling excessively focused, absence of correspondence among clinic staff individuals, absence of legitimate arranging preceding the medical procedure, utilization of liquor or medications by the rehearsing specialist, the ineptitude of the specialist, and the specialist is for the most part careless.


These are broad of three types :

  1. Criminal liability: Criminal liability under the Indian penal code, 1860 does not include medical negligence. Section 304A of IPC is employed to affect both matters of accidents and negligent automobile driving as medical negligence resulting in the death of a patient. Under Section 337, causing hurt and Section 338 includes grievous hurt used for medical negligence.

  2. Monetary liability or civil liability: monetary compensation often provided under the prescribed law from a local civil court or consumer courts. Action seeker can also bring matters in permanent Lok adults, as per Legal Services Authority Act, 1987.

  3. Disciplinary action: Penalty imposed for disciplinary action or misbehaviour conduct that is unexpected. Any type of misconduct or misbehaviour by a medical practitioner is governed under Indian Medical Council (IMC),(Professional Conduct, Etiquette, and Ethics) Regulations, 2002, under IMC Act, 1956. These are empowered to take disciplinary action against the defendant by removing his /her name from the medical field, forever or may suspend.


Hon'ble Supreme Court stated that "criminal arraignment of specialists without sufficient clinical assessment would be an extraordinary insult to the local area. It would shake the actual texture of specialist patient relationship as for common certainty and confidence the specialists would be more stressed over their well- being as opposed to giving the best treatment to their patients".

The lawful position is solid that where a patient kicks the bucket because of the careless clinical treatment of the specialist, the specialist can be made obligated in common law for paying pay and harms in 'Misdeed' and simultaneously, if the level of carelessness is so gross and demonstration was foolish as to imperil the existence of the patient, he would likewise be made criminally responsible for an offence under section 304-A of IPC". Occurrences are accounted for in which bodies of evidence are enrolled against the specialist' u/s 304 IPC as specialists are killer and surprisingly not allowed bail.

Mainly it is an unpunished offence because there is an absence of ‘men's rea’ and the act done is not willfully has done by negligence only.


It can conclude, as the law always wanted to make a balance between the act of behaviouralism and unauthorised acts. The legal system does not want to adopt a completely hands-off approach for the actions of a medical professional and always wanted to punish those who fall below the minimum standard of acting in an unprofessional manner. The law also seeks to safeguard to protect the interests of a patient to expect a less amount of care. If possible, that can be maximum best care. Where the doctor attending to the patient is found to be duly qualified so, there was nothing to establish that his conduct is below the normal standard of a reasonably competent.

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